Below is a re-posting from among the best posts on parking at my other blog, Reinventing Urban Transport. This one first appeared in April 2010 as: Parking dramas in South Asian cities
I have slightly edited and improved the April post.
Obviously the cars on the right are there all day.
As I mentioned last year, I have been investigating parking policy in 14 Asian cities. The report, commissioned by the Asian Development Bank (ADB), should be out
I want to share some highlights. Yes, highlights. Don't laugh! Even I was surprised how much drama there is around parking.
Basement in a commercial street in Dhaka signposted as 'car parking' (but there are stairs not a ramp and this space had obviously been used for shops before being demolished, presumably in enforcement action.)
A commercial street is clogged with motor vehicles. Many are parked at the roadside, across kerbs, and on footways and dusty verges. Some cars are double-parked.
News reports highlight the ‘shortage’ and call for action. Meanwhile, basement parking lots of many buildings along the street are half empty. They charge a small fee that is slightly higher than is charged in the streets.
Municipal regulations require these parking spaces be provided as a condition for building approval. However, some buildings have shops in their basements instead of parking. Building inspectors were persuaded to ignore these violations. Occasionally enforcement action is taken and basement shops are demolished.
The city government also wants to build parking structures itself. But the projects so far have been expensive and have low returns. Moreover, they have not prevented on-street parking chaos in their vicinities. There are plans for many more such structures but budget problems are stalling the program. The latest plan involves a developer building 10 storeys of office space in return for creating five storeys of public parking.
The current South Asian solutions to these predicaments focus on minimum parking requirements for buildings as well as on government-provided parking. Mumbai is also offering floor area bonuses ('FSI' bonuses) to developers who build extra parking and then hand it over to the municipality as public parking.
In many cities these policies have been ineffectual so far (as seen in these Dhaka photos). But where such medicine does create plentiful off-street parking, the side-effects may be worse than the illness (as in North America's autocentric suburbs). In fact, parking requirements have been especially problematic when applied in dense contexts, such as America's inner-cities.