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Parking policy bibliography

This page provides a (first draft) list of documents and sources on parking policy. I hope to add annotations to the best of these over time.

Want to help? Please use the comments to this page or email me with: corrections, suggestions or short paragraphs commenting on any of these parking references.

[Note:  I have not necessarily managed to get my hands on all of these items.]

Last updated:   24 July 2011

Adler, M., 1985. Street Parking: The Case for Communal Property. Logistics and Transportation Review, 21, 375-387.

Anderson et al., 2007. Parking in the city. Papers in Regional Science, 86(4), 621–632.

Anderson, S., 2004. The economics of pricing parking. Journal of Urban Economics, 55(1), 1–20.

Araneta, S., 2009. Supreme Court rules mall parking fees legal. The Philippine Star. Available at:

Arnott, R., 2006. Spatial competition between parking garages and downtown parking policy. Transport Policy, 13(6), 458–469.

Arnott, R. & Inci, E., 2006. An integrated model of downtown parking and traffic congestion. Journal of Urban Economics, 60(3), 418–442.

Arnott, R. & Inci, E., 2010. The stability of downtown parking and traffic congestion. Journal of Urban Economics, Journal of Urban Economics 68 (3), 260-276.

Banfield, K., 1997. Should Planners Under-Provide Car Parking?'. Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney NSW.

Barter, P.A., 2009. Three paradigms in parking policy and their relevance to Australian cities. In 32nd Australasian Transport Research Forum (ATRF).  SkyCity Auckland Convention Centre, Auckland, New Zealand. Available at:

Barter, P.A., 2010. Off-Street Parking Policy without Parking Requirements: a Need for Market Fostering and Regulation? Transport Reviews, 30 (5), 571-588. Available at: Preprint here (pdf).

Barter, P.A. (2011a) Parking Policy in Asian Cities. Asian Development Bank (ADB), Manila. Available via

Barter, P.A. (2011b) Parking Requirements in Some Major Asian Cities, presented to the 90th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, January, 2011 and accepted for publication in Transportation Research Record in 2011.

Barter, P. A. (2011 in press) Off-street parking policy surprises in Asian cities. J. Cities,  Author's revised version here (pdf).

Bennett, W., 1956. University Campus Parking. Traffic Quarterly, 89-105.

Bonsall, P. & Young, W., 2010. Is there a case for replacing parking charges by road user charges? Transport Policy, 17(5), 323-334.

Booz Allen Hamilton, 2006. International Approaches to Tackling Transport Congestion: Paper 2 (Final): Parking Restraint Measures A5022/WP/WP2.

Brahme, N., 2010. How money is parked by ‘lax’ civic officials. Pune Mirror. Available at:

Brown, J., Hess, D.B. & Shoup, D., 2001. Unlimited access. Transportation, 28(3), 233-267.

Brown, M., 1990. Car parking: the economics of policy enforcement, Bedford: Cranfield Press. Available at:

Button, K., 2006. The political economy of parking charges in "first"� and "second-best" worlds. Transport Policy, 13(6), 470–478.

Calthrop, E. & Proost, S., 2006. Regulating on-street parking. Regional Science and Urban Economics, 36(1), 29–48.

Calthrop, E., Proost, S. & van Dender, K., 2000. Parking Policies and Road Pricing. Urban Studies, 37(1), 63–76.

City of Melbourne, 2008. CBD and Docklands Parking Plan 2008 – 2013. Available at:

City of Melbourne, City of Melbourne - Parking -main page to further resource information on public parking info and planning strategies. Available at:

City of Ryde, 2006. City of Ryde Development Control Plan 2006, Section 9.3 Car Parking (Amended 23 July 2008). Available at:

City of Sydney, 2005. Sydney Local Environmental Plan 2005. Available at:

Clarke, H., 2009a. Congestion & efficient markets for parking spots. Harry Clarke on economics, politics & other things. Available at:

Clarke, H., 2009b. Parking economics. Harry Clarke on economics, politics & other things. Available at:

Clinch, J.P., 2003. The influence of parking pricing on the profile of on-street parkers, University College Dublin, Department of Environmental Studies.

Colliers International, 2009. Global CBD Parking Rate Survey 2009, Colliers International. Available at:

Cracknell, J., 2000. Experience in Urban Traffic Management and Demand Management in Developing Countries, Background Paper for the World Bank Urban Transport Strategy Review [includes discussion of parking policy - damning it with faint praise]

CROW 1994. Guidelines for coordinated parking policy. Netherlands.

CSE India, 2009. Choc-a-Block: Parking measures to address mobility crisis, New Delhi: Center for Science and Environment, Clean Air Campaign. Available at:

Davis, A.Y., Pijanowski, B.C., Robinson, K. & Engel, B., 2010. The environmental and economic costs of sprawling parking lots in the United States. Land Use Policy, 27(2), 255-261.

Davis, A.Y., Pijanowski, B.C., Robinson, K.D. & Kidwell, P.B., 2010. Estimating parking lot footprints in the Upper Great Lakes Region of the USA. Landscape and Urban Planning, 96(2), 68-77.

Dhaka Transport Coordination Board, 2009. Parking Policy for the Dhaka Metropolitan Development Plan Area, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Dirickx, Y.M.I. & Jennergren, L.P., 1975. An analysis of the parking situation in the downtown area of West Berlin. Transportation Research, 9(1), 1–11.

Dogaki, E. & Inoue, N., 2009. Investigative research into the changes in on-street parking
behavior after the establishment of the parking attendant system. Journal of Infrastructure Planning and Management, 65(3), 373-385.

DPCD- Dept. of PLanning and Community Development,Victoria, Activity centres, urban design, car parking, transport & traffic - practice notes and advisory notes. Available at:

Engel-Yan, J., Hollingworth, B. & Anderson, S., 2007. Will Reducing Parking Standards Lead to Reductions in Parking Supply?: Results of Extensive Commercial Parking Survey in Toronto, Canada. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2010(-1), 102-110.

Eppell Olsen & Partners, Transportation & Traffic Engineering & Planning, 2004. Gold Coast Whole of City Parking Strategy Final Draft. Available at:

Epstein, R.A., 2001. The Allocation of the Commons: Parking and Stopping on the Commons. Available via

Fan, H.S.L. & Lam, S.H., 1997. Parking generation of commercial developments in Singapore. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 123(3), 238-242.

Feitelson, E. & Rotem, O., 2004. The case for taxing surface parking. Transportation Research Part D, 9(4), 319-333.

Ferguson, E., 2004. Zoning for Parking as Policy Process: A Historical Review. Transport Reviews, 24(2), 177-194.

Forinash, C. et al., 2003. Smart growth alternatives to minimum parking requirements. In 2nd Urban Street Symposium: Uptown, Downtown or Small Town: Designing Urban Streets That Work.  Anaheim, California: Transportation Research Board : Washington, D.C.

Franco, S., Cutter, B. & DeWoody, A., 2010. Do Parking Requirements Significantly Increase The Area Dedicated To Parking? A Test Of The Effect Of Parking Requirements Values In Los Angeles County. Available at:

Froeb, L., 2003. Bertrand competition with capacity constraints: mergers among parking lots. Journal of Econometrics, 113(1), 49-67.

Fukuchi, G., 1994. At or below ground level? An example of urban parking facilities in Japan. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 9(1), 53-57.

Gordon, P., 2006. Letter to the Editor: Parking Book Worthwhile Reading for Planners. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(2), 244.

Guest, P., 2010. Beijing Doubles Parking Charges. Parking World. Available at:

Hamid, N., 2009. Utilization patterns of park and ride facilities among Kuala Lumpur commuters. Transportation, 36(3), 295-307.

Hananouchi, R. & Nuworsoo, C.K., 2010. Comparison of Parking Requirements in Zoning and Form-Based Codes. In TRB 89th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers DVD, Paper #10-2818. Transportation Research Board 89th Annual Meeting,  2010-1-10 to 2010-1-14.  Washington DC: Transportation Research Board.

Harvard Univeristy Operations (UOS), 2001. The Challenge of Parking at Harvard, Presidential briefing.

Henderson, J., The Spaces of Parking: Mapping the Politics of Mobility in San Francisco. Antipode, 41(1), 70–91.

Hensher, D.A. & King, J., 2001. Parking demand and responsiveness to supply, pricing and location in the Sydney central business district. Transportation Research Part A, 35(3), 177-196.

Hess, D.B., 2001. The Effects of Free Parking on Commuter Mode Choice: Evidence from Travel Diary Data.

Hidas, P. & Cuthbert, M., 1998. Parking policy as a TDM measure in CBD areas. Available at:

Higgins, T.J., 1992. Parking taxes: Effectiveness, legality and implementation, some general considerations. Transportation, 19(3), 221–230.

Hsien-Ming, C., 2005. A LOCATION MODEL FOR THE ALLOCATION OF THE OFF-STREET PARKING FACILITIES. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 1344-1353.

India Environmental Portal (managed by CSE India), Parking Policy (news, reports, etc)

Isler, E.E., Hoel, L.A. & Fontaine, M.D., 2005. Innovative Parking Management Strategies for Universities: Accommodating Multiple Objectives in a Constrained Environment. In Compendium of Papers CD-ROM of the 84 th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board. 2005 Annual Meetings of the TRB.  Washington, D.C.

Ison, S. & Rye, T., 2006. Parking. Transport Policy, 13(6), 445–446.

ITDP and Nelson\Nygaard, 2009. Harbin Daoli Parking Analysis, Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP). Available via

Jakle, J.A. & Sculle, K.A., 2004. Lots of parking: land use in a car culture, Univ of Virginia Press.

Jia, W. & Wachs, M., 1998. Parking and affordable housing. Access (University of California Transportation Centre), 13, 22-25.

Kaehny, J., 2008. Reforming Parking: A Call to Action. Available at:

Kamali, F., Potter, H. & Atkins, W.S., 1997. Do parking policies meet their objectives? PTRC-PUBLICATIONS-P, 413-424.

Klein, D.B., 2006. Free Parking versus Free Markets: A Review Essay on Donald Shoup's The High Cost of Free Parking, The Ratio Institute. Available at:

Knoflacher, H., 2006. A new way to organize parking: the key to a successful sustainable transport system for the future. Environment and Urbanization, 18(2), 387-400.

Kodransky, Michael and Hermann, Gabrielle (2011) European Parking U-Turn: From Accommodation to Regulation, Report for the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), 18 Jan 2011, via

KonSULT, 2006. Parking Standards: Taxonomy and description. Transport Strategy: A Decision-Makers' Guidebook, by KonSULT, the Knowledgebase on Sustainable Urban Land use and Transport. Available at:

Koushki, P.A, Book review of 'The High Cost of Free Parking' by Donald Shoup. Transport Reviews, 26(5), 663-665.

Kumar, S.S., 2009. Malls charge high parking fee. The Hindu. Available at:

Land Transport Authority, 2005. Handbook of Vehicle Parking Provision in Development Proposals 2005th ed., Singapore: Land Transport Authority, Development & Building Control Division, Roads Group.

Levinson, D., 2005. Shoup: The High Cost of Free Parking (Book Review). Journal of American Planning Association, 71(4), 459.

Lewyn, M.E, M. & Cralle, S, 2007. Planners Gone Wild: The Overregulation of Parking. William Mitchell Law Review, 33(2), 613-626.

Li, X.F., 2007. Study of the Effects of Kerbside Parking on Traffic. Masters dissertation in Transportation Regulation and Management. Beijing University of Transport.

Lim, L. & Han, Y.H., 2008. Number of parking lots decided by market forces. Straits Times (Singapore). Available at:

Litman, T., 2006. Parking management best practices, Chicago: American Planning Association.

Litman, T., 2009. Transportation Cost and Benefit Analysis II – Parking Costs, Victoria Transportation Policy Institute. Available at:

Longworth, T., What role does car parking restraint play in mode choice for
commuter travel to Sydney’s CBD?

March, A., 2007. Towards Strategic Planning for Car Parking. Available at:

Marsden, G., 2006. The evidence base for parking policies: a review. Transport Policy, 13(6), 447–457.

Martens, D.K., 2005. The Effects of Restrictive Parking Policy on the Development of City Centers. Available at:

McShane, M. & Meyer, M.D., 1982. Parking policy and urban goals: Linking strategy to needs. Transportation, 11(2), 131-152.

Menon, A.P.G., LEONG, S. & Olszewski, P., 1997. The parking of heavy goods vehicles in Singapore: The Vehicle Parking Certificate(VPC) scheme. Traffic engineering & control, 38(1), 16-19.

Merriman, D., 1998. How many parking spaces does it take to create one additional transit passenger? Regional Science and Urban Economics, 28(5), 565-584.

Mildner, G.C.S., Strathman, J.G. & Bianco, M.J., Travel and Parking Behavior in the United States. Center for Urban Design Studies.

Mitra, S., 2005. City Transport in India: Impending Disaster. Social Science Research Network Working Paper Series. Available at:

Mogren, E.G. & Smith, W.S., 1952. Zoning and Traffic, Saugatuck: Eno Foundation.


Morikawa, S. et al., 2010. Institutional System and Current Problems of Car Parking in Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo: University of Tokyo. Available at:

Mukhija, V. & Shoup, D., 2006. Quantity versus Quality in Off-Street Parking Requirements. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(3), 296-308.

Nelson, A., 1997. Fear of parking: The fearful use of car parks. TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING-LONDON-TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING ASSOCIATION-, 66, 3-3.

Orquina, C.A., Lidasan, H.S. & Regidor, J.R.F., 2003. Developing a parking supply model to explain residential condominium parking in Metro Manila, Philippines. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 5, 1049-1064.

Over Arup & Partners Hong Kong Ltd, 2002. The Second Parking Demand Study: Final Report, Hong Kong: Transport Department.

Parramatta City Council, Parking in Parramatta (Main Page). Available at:

Pierson, C., Klompenhouwer, M. & Nieuwland, J., 2008. Parking Meters, need change?, The Netherlands: User Intelligence. Available at:

Planning SA, 2001. Planning Bulletin: Parking provisions for
selected land uses (Suburban Metropolitan Adelaide) FIS 21803, First Edition. Available at:

Pryor, L., 2009. Parking is such sweet sorrow when you're at Ikea on a soggy Saturday. Sydney Morning Herald, 7.

Reddy, T.S. & Jalihal, S.A., 2003. Parking management strategy for the walled city of Jaipur. Journal of the Institution of Engineers. India. Civil Engineering Division, 84(May), 64-71.

Roth, G., 1965. Paying for parking, London: Institute of Economic Affairs. http://

Rye, Tom (2010) Parking Management: A Contribution Towards Liveable Cities, Module 2c, GIZ Sourcebook for Decision-Makers in Developing Cities, Sustainable Urban Transport Project, GIZ, Eschborn, Germany. Via

Rye, T., Cowan, T. & Ison, S., 2006. Expansion of a controlled parking zone (CPZ) and its influence on modal split: the case of Edinburgh. Transportation Planning and Technology, 29(1), 75-89.

Rye, T. & Ison, S., 2005. Overcoming barriers to the implementation of car parking charges at UK workplaces. Transport Policy, 12(1), 57-64.


Seibert, C., 2008. There's no such thing as a free parking space. Policy, 23(2), 7-13.

Seibert, C., 2008. The cost of free parking. The Australian, 14.

Seoul Metropolitan Government, 2009. Parking Conditions and Improvement Suggestions: Understanding domestic and international parking policies, Seoul: Seoul Metropolitan Government.

Setiawati, I., 2010. City should set more efficient parking rates system: Groups. Jakarta Post. Available at:

SGS Economics and Planning, 2007. SGS Paper - Parking and Urban Development, Prepared for the SGS and Marrickville Council Parking and Urban Development Seminar. Available at: or

SHANG, H., LIN, W. & HUANG, H., 2007. Empirical Study of Parking Problem on University Campus. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology, 7(2), 135-140.

Shields, L. & Tanner, A., 2004. Costs of meals and parking for parents of hospitalised children in Australia. Paediatric Nursing, 16(6), 14-18.

Shoup, D.C., 1995. An Opportunity to Reduce Minimum Parking Requirements. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(1), 14–28.

Shoup, D.C., 1980. Free parking as a transportation problem, Washington  D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Transportation  Research and Special Programs Administration  Office of University Research.

Shoup, D.C., 2005. The High Cost of Free Parking, Chicago: American Planning Association.

Shoup, D.C., 1999. The trouble with minimum parking requirements. Transportation Research A, 33(7/8), 549-574.

Shoup, D.C. & Pickrell, D., 1979. Free parking as a transportation problem, University of California.

Siegman, P., 2006. Less Traffic, Better Places, A Step-by-Step Guide to Reforming Parking Requirements. Available at:

Smith, M, 1999. Parking. In J. Edwards, ed. Transportation planning handbook.  Washington  DC: Institute of Transportation Engineers.

Stevens, M, 2007. Campus Parking Permit Scandal Leads to Charges of Race Discrimination. Parking, June.

Still, B. & Simmonds, D., 2000. Parking restraint policy and urban vitality. Transport Reviews, 20(3), 291-316.

Stockwell, C. & Nowak, M.J., 1999. An Application of National Competition Policy: Parking Services, City of Perth, GSB Working Paper No. 17.

Sundstrom and Associates, 2006. Student Parking Allocation System Study, Report of Institutional Perspectives,

Takada, K., 1986. Parking Problems and Their Solutions in Commercial Areas in Large Cities. IATSS Review, 12.

Tam, M.L. & Lam, W.H.K., 2000. Maximum car ownership under constraints of road capacity and parking space. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 34(3), 145-170.

Tanaka, S. & Kuwahara, M., 2006. Evaluation of on-street parking scheme using virtual
reality traffic experiment system. In Proceedings of the 13th ITS World Congress. 13th ITS World Congress.  London.

Topp, H.H., 1991. Parking policies in large cities in Germany. Transportation, 18(1), 3-21.

Topp, H., 1993. Parking policies to reduce car traffic in German cities. Transport Reviews, 13(1), 83-95.

Tsamboulas, D.A., 2001. Parking fare thresholds: a policy tool. Transport Policy, 8(2), 115-124.

Tumlin, J., 2005. Reforming Parking Requirements. Presentation that summarizes some of Nelson\Nygaard's work in developing sound parking policies for a variety of cities. Available at:

Verhoef, E., 1995. The economics of regulatory parking policies: The (IM)possibilities of parking policies in traffic regulation. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 29(2), 141–156.

Vianna, M.M.B., Portugal, L.D.S. & Balassiano, R., 2004. Intelligent transportation systems and parking management: implementation potential in a Brazilian city. Cities, 21(2), 137-148.

Vickrey, W., 1954. The economizing of curb parking space. Traffic Engineering, 62-67.

Victoria Department of Planning and Community Development, 2008. Victoria Planning Provisions VC49, Clause 52.06 ‘Car Parking’, Available at:

Voith, R., 1998a. Parking, transit, and employment in a central business district. Journal of Urban Economics, 44(1), 43-58.

Voith, R., 1998b. The downtown parking syndrome: does curing the illness kill the patient? Business Review, 1, 3-14.

Watters, P., Omahony, M. & Caulfield, B., 2006. Response to cash outs for work place parking and work place parking charges. Transport Policy, 13(6), 503–510.

Weinberger, R., Kaehny, J. and Rufo, M. (2010) U.S. Parking Policies: An Overview of Management Strategies, Report for the Institute for Transportation and Development Policy (ITDP), 23 Feb 2010. Via

Weinstein, A., Curing Congestion: Competing Plans for a Loop Highway and Parking Regulations in Boston in the 1920s. Journal of Planning History, 3(4), 292+.

West, D.C, 2006. Book Review of 'The High Cost of Free Parking' by Donald C. Shoup. Journal of Regional Science, 46(4), 800-802.

Willson, R.W. & Shoup, D.C., 1990. Parking subsidies and travel choices: Assessing the evidence. Transportation, 17(2), 141-157.

Willson, R.W., 1995. Suburban Parking Requirements: A Tacit Policy for Automobile Use and Sprawl. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(1), 29–42.

de Wit, T. ed., 2006. Parking Policies and the Effects on Economy and Mobility - Report on COST Action 342. Available at:*&pub-action=342

Wormster, L., 1997. Don’t Even Think of Parking Here. Planning, 10-15.

Wronski, R., 2009. New parking lot going condo at Metra station -- Available at:,0,2362993.story

YE, Z., LIU, C. & GUI, N., 2009. Research on Different Parking Supply in Beijing. Journal of Transportation Systems Engineering and Information Technology, 9(6), 47-51.

Young, W., 2008. A View of Parking Policy in an Australian City. The Implementation and Effectiveness of Transport Demand Management Measures: An International Perspective, 151.

Young, W., Thompson, R.G. & Taylor, M.A.P., 1991. A review of urban car parking models. Transport Reviews: A Transnational Transdisciplinary Journal, 11(1), 63.

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