Wednesday, June 28, 2017

On-street parking fees despite zero public transport?

On-street parking fees despite zero public transport?
Can on-street parking fees really help places with poor public transport?

I was asked this many times in Pune, India, while I was there three weeks ago*. Parking is a hot topic in this Maharashtra city of about 5 million people because many Pune streets have extreme parking problems and because the Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) has a new and progressive draft parking policy awaiting approval. However, public transport in Pune remains unappealing for vehicle owners. Hence the question.

The short answer is yes! 

Double parking and parking on footways are common sights on Pune's FC Road.

Well-designed on-street parking fees can help regardless of the state of public transport. 

Don't get me wrong. Public transport is important. I think it deserves a very high priority in urban transport planning. And it does help parking management to have a good transit alternative, not least because the politics of on-street parking fees tends to be a little easier if public transport is strong.

Nevertheless, it is still true that on-street parking fees can work most of their magic without the help of public transport.

Here is an example:  Saudi Arabia's cities have very little public transport. Yet these before-and-after shots highlight the visible benefits of implementing on-street parking fees (along with improved enforcement, of course) in several downtown streets in Jeddah.

A slide by Andrew Perrier of Mawgif (the company that implemented Jeddah's downtown on-street pricing) from his presentation at the 2nd Annual Parking Management Conference, Singapore, Feb. 2017 (used with permission) 

But how can this be? 

Don't motorists need a good public transport alternative before they can change their parking behaviour? Actually no.

Public transport is just one of many options open to motorists faced with new or increased on-street parking fees.

The number one way that well-planned on-street fees help is by persuading some motorists to change their parking LOCATIONS.

In a training event in Pune I had the participants do a simple hands-on simulation of parking in and around a small commercial area.

  • We simulated car arrivals and departures across a weekday morning.  
  • Participants used stickers to "park" the simulated cars on the map of the area and to mark the spaces empty again when cars leave. 
  • The participants had JUST ONE CHOICE to make: where to park that car. Their options were off-street (in either the core area or nearby) and on-street (legal in the core area, illegal in the core area or legal in the surrounding quieter residential area).
We ran the simulation twice:
  1. with weak parking management (almost zero enforcement; on-street parking free-of-charge; priced off-street parking, albeit with low fees)
  2. with strong on-street parking management (decent enforcement; on-street parking fees but only in the commercial core area; off-street parking fees as before; the on-street fees in the core are higher than the off-street fees in the same area).
Can you guess how it turns out?


Without fail, every group gets results that look something like this.   [BTW, blue is the colour for commercial on Indian zoning maps.]



Weak parking management results in all-day parking hogging most of the prime on-street spaces in the commercial area. Off-street spaces were usually little used. Illegal on-street parking was common.

Strong parking management always resulted in all-day parking in the residential periphery and off-street, leaving the prime on-street spaces for short-term parking with high turnover. Off-street parking became well used and illegal on-street parking became a rare event.

Many participants were astonished that such simple policy changes made so much difference.

The simulation has limitations but I hope participants became a little more willing to believe that on-street parking management can often ease parking problems without the need for more off-street parking.

Notice that these striking results were achieved without any mode shifts. 

All we did was use on-street fees and enforcement to nudge most all-day parking to off-street options and/or to quieter streets where parking demand is lighter.

Of course, in reality, some motorists do respond by changing travel mode (to walking, biking, motorcycle, taxi, ride-hail, family drop off, or even to public transport). And any such mode shift will be a help. Parking location shift is usually the primary parking management result but it is not the only one.

Mode shift is usually not essential to on-street parking management

You can achieve a lot with well-planned on-street parking fees without any shift to public transport.

In fact, parking management can often drastically ease parking problems (like illegal parking, double parking, cruising for parking and complaints of shortage) even if no-one at all changes travel mode.

So please don't wait for excellent public transport before deploying on-street parking fees as a key parking management tool!


*  My trip to Pune was supported by GIZ’s Sustainable Urban Transport Project (SUTP) and the workshop was organized by ITDP India’s excellent Pune team.  Many thanks to both!

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Wednesday, March 15, 2017

The on-street parking foundations for success without parking excess: my talks at PIE 2017

The on-street parking foundations for success without parking excess: my talks at PIE 2017
Last week I was at the Parking Industry Exhibition 2017 in Chicago with more than a thousand other participants. I learned a great deal from many fascinating attendees with diverse connections to the world of parking. The 26-hour journey was worth the effort.

Many thanks to the friendly organizing team at Parking Today for inviting me to give two keynote talks at my first PIE!

I want to use this post to simply share my presentations.

My central goal was to help stiffen spines regarding on-street parking management while arguing that parking management is the foundation on which to build parking success without excess.

I also introduced the basics of Adaptive Parking and offered some international flavour to entertain an audience drawn mostly from North America.

My slides are below so scroll down to browse both the Monday morning keynote and then the Wednesday morning keynote.

If you can't see the slideshows below (Slideshare is blocked in certain countries), then let me know.

On-Street Parking Management: Confront the Key Choices


Shoupista bonus: did you spot Prof Donald Shoup and his wife in one of the photos?


What do you think? Any questions or comments?

I had 24 hours at the end of PIE for a look around in Chicago. This included sniffing out various parking curiosities, which I may share in another post.



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Monday, February 13, 2017

Don't do the wrong thing "better". Do the RIGHT thing!

Don't do the wrong thing "better". Do the RIGHT thing!
Last year, Brent Toderian, former chief planner of Vancouver, British Columbia, sent out this tweet:

So, are your parking reforms doing the right thing? Or are they just doing the wrong thing a little "better"? 

We can see these alternatives in two North American cities' contrasting efforts to tackle excessive minimum parking minimums.

One is sticking with the old On-Site-Parking mindset but applying it a little more carefully.

The other has taken a large leap towards a more promising parking-policy mindset: Walkable Parking thinking.

Victoria is considering lowering some parking minimums

I hear via Todd Litman that Victoria (in British Columbia, Canada) is talking about reducing some of its off-street minimum parking requirements.

It is studying how to keep doing the wrong thing slightly less wrongly.

The announcement explains the key idea:
A review of off-street parking is being conducted to align the regulations with actual demand, current trends and community objectives.
The study included new assessments of local parking demand. It also compared Victoria's parking standards with 'comparable' communities elsewhere in Canada.

The resulting draft proposal calls for modest reductions to some of the parking minimums. It also provides for more geographical differentiation of parking regulations based on location or context based on the areas shown in the map below.

City of Victoria 2016. Review of Zoning Regulation Bylaw Off-Street Parking Requirements (Schedule C). Working Paper Number 5, Preliminary Recommendations. 

Victoria is trying to right-size its parking minimums and make them match each context more precisely.

However, parking minimums are to continue for almost all kinds of development everywhere in the city, EVEN in the downtown core. [As far as I can tell, Victoria still has parking minimums for all uses even in its Downtown. This surprised me. Am I missing something?]

These proposals are attacking the "excessive" part of "excessive parking minimums" but not parking minimums themselves.

But right-sized parking minimums still do the wrong thing!

Right-sizing is better than doing nothing. Parking minimums that better match existing observed demand in each context are better than excessive parking minimums, of course.

But even right-sized parking minimums still try to do the impossible and make long-term predictions of parking demand. They still force that amount of parking to be provided on-site with each real-estate development.

Right-sizing tries to make the demand prediction more accurate. But it is still foolish to think we can predict parking demand for every development site far into the future. This is especially obvious now as urban mobility patterns seem very likely to change radically within the useful life of new buildings.

Victoria's review of its parking minimums is tinkering. It fails to even hint at a challenge to the idea of parking minimums and to the mindset behind them.

Buffalo's abolition of parking minimums

Buffalo (in upstate New York, USA) recently got a lot of attention for becoming the first USA city to ABOLISH its minimum parking requirements.

This is a large step towards doing the right thing.

Buffalo’s new Green Code states on page 8-5:
“There are no provisions that establish a minimum number of off-street parking spaces for development."
That may sound radical. And in some ways it is but possibly not in the ways you think.

It is not radical because of any short-term impact on parking supply.

Even if the city was totally abolishing its ability to require on-site parking the short-term impact on parking supply would be modest. Many developers would keep building parking whenever they see the need, as they do in London for example.

And development is a slow process. So any change in parking supply would be gradual.

Buffalo has not completely given up its ability to require parking

Page 8-5 of the Green Code says this:
"However, certain development proposals are required to complete a transportation demand management plan, per Section 8.4, which can result in the provision of off-street parking.”
These TDM plans must include expected travel demand for the project and details on modal share objectives and how that demand will be met "on-site or off-site" including "number of on-street vehicle parking spaces, off-street vehicle parking spaces, or shared vehicle parking arrangements", provision for diverse transport modes, and strategies to reduce single-occupancy vehicle trips, reduce vehicle miles traveled by site users, and promote transportation alternatives (according to page 8-12). (my emphasis)

And on page 8.13 we find:
“In making its decision, the City Planning Board must make written findings of fact on the following matters:
1. The project includes performance objectives to minimize single-occupancy vehicle trips and maximize the utilization of transportation alternatives to the extent practicable, taking into account the opportunities and constraints of the site and the nature of the development.
2. The project must meet the anticipated transportation demand without placing an unreasonable burden on public infrastructure, such as transit and on-street parking facilities, and the surrounding neighborhood."  (my emphasis)

So is Buffalo really doing the right thing then?

Perhaps it is not quite there yet.

It would be better if Buffalo would totally refrain from ever requiring parking. And I wish the Green Code spelled out explicitly what it means by "an unreasonable burden on public infrastructure".

And Buffalo's reform will also work better if it ALSO adopts other complementary policies from the Shoupista or Adaptive Parking playbook, including boosting on-street parking management. I wonder if Buffalo does have any such plans?

Nevertheless, Buffalo IS taking a big bold step, unlike Victoria

Buffalo's parking policies are now on a much more promising trajectory now than Victoria's.

A key stated aim of Buffalo's Green Code is to revitalize development in the city. And a key goal of the parking changes is to stop letting parking minimums hinder developments and redevelopments.

This revitalization goal suggests that city will probably NOT let the TDM plans (with their ability to require parking) be used as parking minimums in disguise (at least not by the current elected officials).

So developers should no longer face the time-consuming and costly process of seeking parking variances.  Buffalo has indeed swept away the complicated apparatus of parking minimums, with their different standards for every land use category.

Notice too that many developments are exempt even from the possibility of required parking under the TDM plans provision.
  • For new construction, buildings of less than 5,000 square feet (465 square metres) are exempt. 
  • For substantial renovation a TDM plan is required only if the gross floor area is at least 50,000 square feet (4,645 square metres) AND there is a change of use. 
  • A TDM plan is not required for single unit dwellings nor for double-unit dwellings. 
  • And TDM plans are never required for ANY project in areas zoned D-IL (Light Industrial), D-IH (Heavy Industrial) or D-C (Flex-Commercial, which are general commercial and mixed-use areas, which typically benefit from flexible form standards and are separate from, but within close proximity to, residential neighborhoods).
It is also clear that Buffalo's new approach is not longer stridently fearful of spillover parking!

Although the TDM plans may require non-exempt developments to avoid "placing an unreasonable burden on public infrastructure", providing on-site parking is only one possible response. On-street parking, off-site parking and shared parking arrangements are also mentioned as options. It seems clear that some spillover is considered acceptable and manageable.

Furthermore, it would take a LOT of spillover to place an unreasonable burden on parking in many areas of Buffalo.

Why? Because Buffalo has a LOT of parking! Here is parking in Downtown Buffalo as revealed by a 2003 study by local non-profit, the New Millennium Group.
Map from Joe the Planner "Putting parking in its proper place"

My guess is that in the near term, new parking-lite developments with plentiful under-used off-street parking nearby will rarely be judged to be "placing an unreasonable burden" on local parking.

A mindset change!

This lack of fear of spillover is what makes Buffalo's parking reforms more radical than Victoria's.

Victoria is sticking with the On-Site-Parking mindset, which insists that every single development site should be served by its own on-site private parking. Victoria's review of its parking requirements retains the usual abhorrence of spillover parking. It even explicitly rejects the idea of a shared parking program.

By contrast, Buffalo has taken a decisive step towards embracing Walkable Parking’ thinking in which parking facilities are assumed to usually serve their whole surrounding area, not just specific sites.

Buffalo no longer assumes that all parking demand from each building must be met with on-site parking. The city is well on the way towards the mindset behind park-once-and-walk planning.

Buffalo's parking reform is radical because it marks a drastic change in the parking policy mindset.

Wait a minute! Doesn't Buffalo have way more ugly surface parking than Victoria? 

Well, yes it does.

There are many historical reasons for Downtown Buffalo's existing parking surplus and its many parking craters. There are also various historical factors behind Victoria's much more intact downtown fabric and relative lack of surface parking.

But this article is not about how well these cities did in the past. It is about today's reforms that will help shape the future.

Two different reforms of excessive parking minimums

In summary, we can see in these cities two very different approaches to parking minimums reform.
  1. Victoria is taking aim only at the excessiveness of some of its minimum parking requirements but it is not questioning the idea of parking minimums themselves. 
  2. Buffalo is abolishing its parking minimums and, despite retaining some ability to require parking in some cases, is well on the way to embracing a parking policy mindset in which parking minimums make no sense anyway.   
I don't want to seem too harsh on Victoria here. At least it is trying to do something about excessive parking minimums.

Many cities around the world are still simply doing the wrong thing and rigidly (even ruthlessly) applying excessive minimum parking requirements!


The Victoria and Buffalo examples highlight that parking minimums are about TWO different things at the same time:
1. plentiful parking AND 2. on-site parking.
Successful reform should take aim at both!

So, don’t just say “we need less parking” without challenging the On-Site-Parking mindset.

Right-sized parking minimums are merely doing the wrong thing a little bit better. Do the right thing and abolish the parking minimums completely.

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