Why parking change is a key to improving public space in citiesAgora Verkehrswende! Today's podcast episode and this article are based on my Berlin talk.
They are NOT mainly about parking design and its effects in the streets. Instead, they are about how parking policy change is crucial to our hopes for better public space in our cities. Not least is the fact that parking often gets in the way of public realm improvements. It gets in the way both physically and by worsening political barriers to change.
I argue that better on-street parking management and a push for Walkable Parking can help enormously. Don't sit back and wait for Automated Vehicles to come along. You probably know this already but anyone working for a better public realm needs to pay at least some attention to parking policy.
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I will summarize my main points briefly below.
Parking often harms the public realmOne link between parking and urban public space is that parking harms the public realm in various ways.
Direct impacts include:
- Parking can simply occupy large amounts of public space
- Ill-advised on-street parking designs can degrade public space
- On-street parking management weaknesses cause nuisance parking that degrades public space.
Management problems make parking seem scarcer than it really is which, among other things, prompts governments to promote excessive amounts of off-street parking with parking minimums or city-provided parking.
Unfortunately, this excessive off-street parking harms the public realm too:
- excessive off-street surface parking makes for a hostile public realm
- garages often have large and busy driveways and/or blank walls which harm the pedestrian environment
- frontage parking between buildings and street is especially bad for the pedestrian realm
- excessive parking fosters high levels of car ownership and traffic.
So, to improve urban public space, we usually need to tackle parking. And a crucial step is better on-street parking management.
On-street parking is a commons in need of managementThe justification for managing on-street parking as that we should think of overburdened on-street parking as an overburdened “commons” that needs management for the common good.
If not managed, it will be over-used. So let's manage it! (design, rationing, enforcement).
three simple goals in on-street parking management:
- Design (as an integral part of street design)
- Effective and efficient enforcement
- Rationing (best done with pricing)
Make parking management
On-street parking management is often crucial for progress on urban public space. But its unpopularity is a barrier to doing better. How can we overcome this?
popular less unpopular
This was a side-track from my main argument but I did offer some suggestions. This topic deserves more detail and a future article/episode!
"Walkable Parking" can help tooWalkable Parking means seeking to have more of our parking open to the public while planning to foster park-once-and-walk districts.
In areas with conventional, site-focused parking policy, most parking is private parking on-site within every destination. This makes any excess of parking demand over supply a major problem, even if it only happens now and then at just one site in the area.
By contrast, if you have Walkable Parking in a park-once-and-walk districts, most parking is part of
the “pool” of parking for the whole area. This is efficient, so we need less parking anyway. And localized surges in demand are no problem usually. People will just park a little further away from their destination then walk.
This can also ease fears over the repurposing of some on-street parking.
I used the example of the King Street Pilot in Toronto and a wonderful tweet storm by planner Gil Meslin (@g_meslin) who used maps to highlight:
- huge number of residences and jobs (potential customers)
- huge number of public parking spaces within easy walking distance
Excellent on-street parking management and Walkable Parking are not the only secrets for better urban public space. But parking policy is a neglected part of the public space story.
Improvements to parking policy can help open up many more opportunities for changes in our streets, including the repurposing of more parking space than is thinkable in many cities for now.
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